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2023年中考英语冲刺复习知识点:定语从句

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发表于 2023-10-4 19:00:56 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
1.定语从句的功用和结构

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如:

This is the present that he gave me for my birthday

2.关系代词和关系副词的功用

关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。

(1)作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如:

I don’t like people who talk much but do little.

The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well.

(2) 作宾语:She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday.

The book that my grandmother gave me is called “The Great Escape”.

(3) 作定语

关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语用。例如:

What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor?

The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard.

(4 )作状语

I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.

3. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

(1) who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

The person who broke the window must pay for it.

The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.

(2)whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如:

Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate?

Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come.

(3) whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如:

The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today.

I know the boy whose father is a professor.

(4) which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:

A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.

Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.

(5)that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:

I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.

Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?

(6)when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

(7) where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

This is the house where we lived last year.

The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.

4. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:

That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room

which we had lived in for ten years.

5. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

(1) 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

a.先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如:

All that he said is true.

b. 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:

He is the only foreigner that has been to that place.

c.先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:

He was the second (person) that told me the secret.

d.先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。

This is the best book (that) I have read this year.

e. 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:

He talked about the people and the things he remembered.

(2)只能用which,不用that 的情况:

a.在非限制性定语从中。例如:

The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.

b. 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:

The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.

考查的主要形式是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。阅读理解和书面表达肯定也要用到定语从句。
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